Arizona Mining Announces New Mineral Resource at Taylor Deposit

VANCOUVER, BC—(Marketwired – October 31, 2016) – Arizona Mining Inc. (TSX: AZ) (“Arizona Mining” or the “Company”) is pleased to announce a Mineral Resource update for the Taylor Zn–Pb–Ag sulfide deposit located on its 100%–owned Hermosa Project in Arizona. The deposit now comprises 31.1 million tons in the Indicated Mineral Resource category grading 10.9% zinc equivalent (“ZnEq”) plus 82.7 million tons of Inferred Mineral Resource grading 11.1% zinc equivalent (ZnEq), both reported in accordance with NI 43–101 guidelines utilizing a 4% ZnEq cutoff grade.

CEO Jim Gowans commented, “Based on work to date, this updated Mineral Resource estimate indicates that the Taylor Deposit has expanded substantially and continues to be one of the best quality growth stories in the mining sector. In addition, should the technical feasibility and economic viability of the project be established, continued metallurgical testing indicates the deposit will produce clean, saleable concentrates with no deleterious elements.”

Table 1. Taylor Deposit Indicated and Inferred Mineral Resources
Indicated Mineral Resource
Cutoff Short Tons ZnEq % Zn % Pb % Cu % Ag opt
ZnEq %
25 1,775,000 32.8 13.4 12.8 0.4 6.6
20 3,640,000 27.2 11.4 10.8 0.3 5.0
15 6,499,000 22.7 9.8 9.0 0.3 4.0
10 12,303,000 17.8 7.7 7.1 0.2 3.0
6 22,280,000 13.3 5.8 5.3 0.2 2.2
5 26,265,000 12.1 5.2 4.8 0.1 2.0
4 31,143,000 10.9 4.7 4.4 0.1 1.8
3 38,571,000 9.5 4.1 3.8 0.1 1.6
0 185,918,000 2.4 1.0 0.9 0.0 0.4
Inferred Mineral Resource
Cutoff Short Tons ZnEq % Zn % Pb % Cu % Ag opt
ZnEq %
25 5,231,000 36.1 16.4 13.7 0.4 6.1
20 8,399,000 30.9 13.4 12.1 0.4 5.4
15 15,713,000 24.4 9.9 10.0 0.3 4.5
10 32,203,000 18.2 7.1 7.6 0.2 3.6
6 61,112,000 13.3 5.1 5.6 0.2 2.6
5 71,222,000 12.2 4.6 5.1 0.2 2.4
4 82,748,000 11.1 4.2 4.7 0.2 2.2
3 98,671,000 9.9 3.7 4.1 0.1 2.0
0 749,354,000 1.6 0.6 0.6 0.0 0.3

COO Don Taylor added: “Infill drilling has highlighted high grade zones within the resource, which is also showing excellent continuity that should enable bulk mining methods. What is not evident from the results is that the resource remains open for expansion to the north, west and south over mineral rights controlled by the Company. In addition to the zinc–lead–silver mineralization other target types have been identified on the mineral holdings and will be drill tested in the coming months.”

The resource is based on assay results from 59 surface diamond drill holes, totaling 206,192 feet (62,863 meters) of drilling, which have all intersected stratabound carbonate replacement sulfide mineralization within the Taylor Deposit. The updated Mineral Resource Estimate was prepared by AMC Mining Consultants (Canada) Ltd. (AMC) of Vancouver, B.C.

Mineral Resources are not Mineral Reserves and do not have demonstrated economic viability. There is no certainty that all or any part of mineral resources will be converted to mineral reserves. Inferred Mineral Resources are based on limited drilling which suggests the greatest uncertainty for a resource estimate and that geological continuity is only implied. Additional drilling will be required to verify geological and mineralization continuity and there is no certainty that all of the inferred resources will be converted to measured and indicated resources. Quantity and grades are estimates and are rounded to reflect the fact that the resource estimate is an approximation.

Estimation Parameters

The Taylor Deposit Mineral Resource update was carried out using Ordinary Kriging of drill core sample data that was composited to 10 feet in length. The compositing process honored lithological domain boundaries. Tonnages and grades of lead, zinc and silver were estimated for seven separate lithological domains. In all cases boundaries between domains were treated as “hard”, meaning that grades from adjacent domains were not used to influence the estimation of grades within a given domain.

Because of the sparsity of bulk density data, a formula using the analyzed abundances of zinc, lead and copper was used. This formula produces bulk density values within approximately 10% of a set of 30 samples of various grades of mineralization for which bulk density measurements were made.

Top cut analysis was carried out using log cumulative probability plots for all metals. Only silver was determined to require capping and was capped at 42 ounces per short ton.

Variographic analysis was carried out for lead, zinc, silver and copper assay grades and the variograms were employed in the kriging estimation. Search ellipses were constructed for each domain and honoured the attitude of mineralization within each domain. Most search ellipses were 600 feet long in the strike direction, 300 feet wide in the cross–strike direction and 100 feet high (vertical direction). Several domains were estimated using ellipses with a vertical height of 50 feet because of the restricted nature of the mineralization in those domains.

Grades were estimated in a single pass. For a grade to be interpolated into a block it was necessary that a minimum of four composites were located within the search ellipse. A maximum of two composites per hole was allowed to ensure that at a minimum, each block was informed by composites from at least two drill holes. A maximum of 10 composites, representing five drill holes, was allowed.

Blocks were classified as an Indicated or Inferred Mineral Resource. For a block to be classified as Indicated it was necessary that a minimum of eight and a maximum of 10 composites were located within 300 feet of the block centroid; for a block to be classified as Inferred, it was necessary that a minimum of four and a maximum of 10 composites were located within 600 feet of a block centroid. No blocks were classified as Measured Resources as at present, mineralization has not been exposed by underground openings, a circumstance that would be necessary to provide sufficient evidence of continuity to warrant that classification.

Estimation results

The Mineral Resource has been stated in terms of Zinc Equivalent, (ZnEq). The ZnEq formula and the underlying parameters used in its formulation are set out in Table 2. Although the grade of copper was estimated, it was not used as a component of the ZnEq formula because of its relatively low abundance and uncertain mineral processing route.

Table 2. Zinc Equivalent parameters and formula1
Metal Price (US$) Recovery (%)
Lead 0.90/lb 95
Zinc 0.95/lb 90
Silver 20.00/oz 85

1 ZnEq = [(Pb/100)*0.9*2000)*0.95 + (Zn/100)*0.95*2000)*0.90 + (20*Ag)*0.85] / (2000*0.95*0.9/100)

The Mineral Resource is summarized in Table 1 (above) at a range of ZnEq cut–off grades. Grades have been rounded to the nearest 0.1% for lead and zinc and the nearest 0.1 ounce per ton for silver. Tons have been rounded to the nearest thousand.

Qualified Person

The QP for the Mineral Resource estimate is G. Z. Mosher, P.Geo, an associate of AMC. The Mineral Resource estimate has been prepared under the guidelines of National Instrument 43–101 (“NI 43–101″) for reporting of Mineral Resources.

Assays and Quality Assurance/Quality Control

To ensure reliable sample results, the Company has a rigorous QA/QC program in place that monitors the chain–of–custody of samples and includes the insertion of blanks, duplicates, and certified reference standards at statistically derived intervals within each batch of samples. Core is photographed and split in half with one–half retained in a secured facility for verification purposes.

Sample preparation (crushing and pulverizing) has been performed at ALS Minerals Laboratories, an ISO/IEC accredited lab located in Tucson, Arizona. ALS Minerals Laboratories prepares a pulp of all samples and sends the pulps to their analytical laboratory in Vancouver, B.C. Canada for analysis. ALS analyzes the pulp sample by ICP following a 4–acid digestion (ME–ICP61 for 33 elements) including Cu (copper), Pb (lead), and Zn (zinc). All samples in which Cu (copper), Pb (lead), or Zn (zinc) are greater than 10,000 ppm are rerun using four acid digestion with an ICP – AES finish (Cu–OG62;Pb–OG62; and Zn–OG62) with the elements reported in percentage (%). Silver values are determined by ICP (ME–ICP61) with all samples with silver values greater than 100 ppm repeated using four acid digestion with an ICP–AES finish (Ag–OG62) calibrated for higher levels of silver contained. Any values over 1,500 ppm Ag trigger a fire assay with gravimetric finish analysis. Gold values are determined by a 30 gm fire assay with an ICP–AES finish (Au–ICP21).

About Arizona Mining

Arizona Mining Inc. is a Canadian mineral exploration and development company focused on the exploration and development of its 100%–owned Hermosa Project located in Santa Cruz County, Arizona. The Taylor Deposit, a lead–zinc–silver carbonate replacement deposit, remains open to the north, west and south over land controlled by the Company and will be aggressively drilled to test the limits of the resource. The Company's other project on the Hermosa property is the Central Deposit, a silver–manganese manto oxide development project that has a prefeasibility study which was released in December 2013.

Cautionary Note Regarding Forward–Looking Information

Certain information contained in this press release constitutes forward–looking statements. All statements, other than statements of historical facts, are forward looking statements including statements with respect to the Company's intentions for its Hermosa Project in Arizona, USA including, without limitation, performing additional drilling on the Taylor Deposit. Forward–looking statements are often, but not always, identified by the use of words such as may, will, seek, anticipate, believe, plan, estimate, budget, schedule, forecast, project, expect, intend, or similar expressions.

The forward–looking statements are based on a number of assumptions which, while considered reasonable by Arizona Mining, are subject to risks and uncertainties. In addition to the assumptions herein, these assumptions include the assumptions described in Arizona Mining's management's discussion and analysis for the year ended December 31, 2015 (“MD&A”). Arizona Mining cautions readers that forward–looking statements involve and are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors which may cause actual results, performance or achievements to differ materially from those expressed in or implied by such forward–looking statements and forward–looking statements are not guarantees of future results, performance or achievement. These risks, uncertainties and factors include general business, economic, competitive, political, regulatory and social uncertainties; actual results of exploration activities and economic evaluations; fluctuations in currency exchange rates; changes in project parameters; changes in costs, including labour, infrastructure, operating and production costs; future prices of zinc, lead, silver and other minerals; variations of mineral grade or recovery rates; operating or technical difficulties in connection with exploration, development or mining activities, including the failure of plant, equipment or processes to operate as anticipated; delays in completion of exploration, development or construction activities; changes in government legislation and regulation; the ability to maintain and renew existing licenses and permits or obtain required licenses and permits in a timely manner; the ability to obtain financing on acceptable terms in a timely manner; contests over title to properties; employee relations and shortages of skilled personnel and contractors; the speculative nature of, and the risks involved in, the exploration, development and mining business; and the factors discussed in the section entitled “Risks and Uncertainties” in the MD&A.

Although Arizona Mining has attempted to identify important risks, uncertainties and other factors that could cause actual performance, achievements, actions, events, results or conditions to differ materially from those expressed in or implied by the forward–looking information, there may be other risks, uncertainties and other factors that cause performance, achievements, actions, events, results or conditions to differ from those anticipated, estimated or intended. Unless otherwise indicated, forward–looking statements contained herein are as of the date hereof and Arizona Mining disclaims any obligation to update any forward–looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or results or otherwise, except as required by applicable law.

Reparations owed for “Racial Terrorism” says UN Committee

A vigil for Ferguson at McGill University in Montreal in November 2014. Credit: Gerry Lauzon / Flickr Creative Commons CC BY 2.0.

A vigil for Ferguson at McGill University in Montreal in November 2014. Credit: Gerry Lauzon / Flickr Creative Commons CC BY 2.0.

By Phoebe Braithwaite

Stressing the enduring relationship between injuries inflicted by slavery and contemporary injustices, a UN committee has recently issued a strongly-worded call for reparations for black U.S. Americans.

“A systemic ideology of racism ensuring the domination of one group over another continues to impact negatively on the civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights of African Americans today,” said the UN Working Group of Experts on People of African Descent, in a report released in August.

So far this year 212 black people have been killed by police in the United States, according to statistics collected by The Guardian. This is almost a quarter of the total 883 people killed by police in 2016, despite the fact that only 14.4 percent of US Americans are of African descent.

While only 6.5% of the US population are African American men, they constitute 40.2% of prison populations, according to Ana DuVernay’s recent film 13TH. While 1 in 17 white men can expect to go to prison in their lifetime, one in three black men can expect to be incarcerated.

The group’s report, which focuses especially on police brutality against black Americans as “reminiscent of the past racial terror of lynching,” makes 35 diverse recommendations, from establishing sovereign human rights commissions to the reinstatement of voting rights of former felons.

Yet critics question whether the liberal human rights paradigm can adequately address this kind of cruelty and oppression, originating as it does in 20th century Europe, where fascism had recently taken root, and in light of Europe’s own role in creating and perpetuating racial injustice.

“Not only is there no curriculum recognition about the real history of our country… but there’s also no cultural recognition,” — Kesi Foster.

“In the era of the Atlantic slave trade,” says Andrew Johnson, Professor of African American Studies at Harvard University, “new notions of difference – absolute, racial notions of difference – were used to define, describe, and justify the political economy of slavery”, articulating the centrality of racism in capitalist exploitation.

Demands for reparations have been largely ignored in the political mainstream. A bill, HR-40, introduced in 1989 to establish a commission examining the “fundamental injustice, cruelty” and brutality of slavery has gained little traction – though the UN committee recommends its passage through Congress. Last year, then-presidential candidate democratic socialist Bernie Sanders dismissed the question of reparations saying that it wouldn’t get through Congress and would be “too divisive”.

Noting Sanders’ determination to push the boat out on issues of class, celebrated writer and proponent of reparations Ta-Nehisi Coates deplored this lack of political imagination: “I thought Sanders’s campaign might remind Americans that what is imminently doable and what is morally correct are not always the same things, and while actualising the former we can’t lose sight of the latter,” Coates said.

He urged that class-based solutions are inappropriate to address “racial plunder” – borne out by the fact that the median income for African American households ($36,898) is almost half their white counterparts ($62,950). The median value of total assets of black families, $4,900, versus white families, $97,000, reveals an even starker difference.

Movement for Black Lives

The Movement for Black Lives, a coalition of over 50 black-led organisations, has set out five key requests which would begin to restore what has been being stolen “since the time that the first black person was kidnapped from the shores of Africa,” in the words of Black Panther Angela Davis.

They focus especially on education, a particular site of harm since it was made illegal to teach enslaved people to read, a law which began in South Carolina in 1740 and was punishable by death in Louisiana. Since then, owing to redlining policies and explicit disinvestment in primarily-black schools, African Americans have continued to suffer from worse educational opportunities, with black students expelled at three times the rate of white students.

“You’re more likely to walk into your hallway and interact with a police officer – in a school – than a guidance counselor,” Kesi Foster, Coordinator at the Urban Youth Collaborative, and contributor to the policy recommendations for the Movement for Black Lives’ demand for reparations, told IPS, saying that in New York, there is one guidance counselor for every 322 students, but a police officer for every 192 students.

These officers are more prevalent in schools with metal detectors, which are usually primarily non-white. Describing what is often called the ‘school-to-prison pipeline’, Foster says that reparative justice could begin by defunding the COPS programme which stations police in schools in line with the perception that black and brown males are “inherently dangerous”.


After the end of the American Civil War in 1865, people who were formerly enslaved were given forty acres of tillable land – and, sometimes a mule. But after Abraham Lincoln’s assassination the same year, his successor Andrew Johnson reversed Lincoln’s directive for redistribution.

Calls for reparations have a long history proceeding from this date, and have tended to focus on material restitution, which makes the Movement for Black Lives’ emphasis on education salient. “Not only is there no curriculum recognition about the real history of our country… but there’s also no cultural recognition,” Foster says. “In Germany and other places… where really atrocious things have taken place, there are markers.”

They call for “mandated public school curriculums that critically examine the political, economic, and social impacts of colonialism and slavery, and funding to support, build, preserve, and restore cultural assets and sacred sites to ensure the recognition and honoring of our collective struggles and triumphs.”

It is clear that fulsome reparations for the continued atrocities perpetrated against people of African descent are not about to be freely given simply because whites are made to see the error of their ways. In the words of Mariame Kaba, organiser, educator and founder of Project NIA, speaking at a recent conference on the disproportionate effect the war on drugs has had on black communities, “the system can’t indict itself. You can’t think that the system that is killing you is going to save you.”

Kaba, who helped in the fight for plaintiffs’ justice in the Burge torture trials, discussed the extensive public apology that was eventually won by some of those Burge tortured, and the history’s inclusion in Chicago’s curriculums, demonstrating the essential role honest expressions of responsibility can play in processes of healing for black communities who have been brutalised by the state.

But the Movement’s foremost demand is for the “full and free access for all Black people (including undocumented and currently and formerly incarcerated people) to lifetime education” in its every form, including the “retroactive forgiveness of student loans”.

Professor Harold McDougall, who teaches law at Howard University, has, among many others, argued for the necessity of black-only education. McDougall would like to see Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs), like Howard, funded to set up “Reparations Academies” for the descendents of people who were “damaged by educational racism”. This is a practical measure as much as it compounds Stokely Carmichael and Charles Hamilton’s view that “group solidarity is necessary before a group can operate effectively from a bargaining position of strength”.

McDougall, like others in this struggle, wears two hats: “you have to be able to firmly advance your point of view in the governance process, but even at that time to have your feet firmly grounded in the community, so that the broad-base of the population is continually informing your sense of what needs to be done,” he told IPS.

“When this is going to happen is not something we’re necessarily wrestling with,” Foster says. “For me, it’s more important [to ask]… how does this struggle lead us forward in a way that’s actually transformational, and that’s actually trying to significantly change the material conditions that black people are living under, because of the way that the system was set up, which is to basically profit off of our bodies, profit off our labour, and then give nothing back to us,” citing Chicago’s victory as an example.

Taking a long view, McDougall says that “it’s important to look at these struggles as multi-generational – the problems were not created in a generation. It is unlikely, although not impossible, that they will be solved in your lifetime, so what you do is you roll the ball forward for as long as you can.”